Throughout the week, we discussed the topic of “Public and Private Canada” with a main focus on Gender, Family, and Sexuality. Within this topic, we have a census of parenthood in the late 1800s to the mid 1950s which discusses single parents, lone parents, and the shift in definition of the term ‘families’. In addition to this, we have sexuality and morality in a Canadian university which talks about the change from single-sex socialization to the new heterosexual culture and how to build moral character. In Bettina Bradbury’s article, “Single Parenthood in the Past: Canadian Census Categories, 1891-1951, and the ‘Normal’ Family”, she talks about single parents, and lone parents and the how over years of different censuses, the definition of “families” has changed. “Single parent originally denoted only unmarried parents” which gave a negative outlook on them. “Statistics Canada… attempted to sidestep the negativity by using the term ‘lone parent’ to include families headed by one parents as a result of separation or divorce as well as nonmarriage”. With single parents and lone parents, the definition of ‘families’ changed throughout the years. In 1891 family was defined as “one person living alone, or of any number of persons living together under one roof, and having their food provided together”. By 1921, the definition evolved to “a group of persons, whether related by blood or not, who live together as one household, usually sharing the same table”. But after another ten years, this definition changed to “a family consists of husband and wife or parents with sons and daughters living together. All of these definitions had included the broad scope of what the definition of family should be, however, in 1951, the definition of family became more developed and used more frequently. “A family… consists of a husband and wife (with or without children) or parent with an unmarried child (or children) living together in the same dwelling” and the “‘normal family’ a family in which the husband and wife are living together with or without children”. Throughout the years, it is notable that the definition of family/families changed to be more developed and used more frequently as the years progressed. Turning away from families and parenthood, we have the idea of sexuality and morality in Canadian universities, which all connects to the main theme of the week. In Catherine Gidney’s article “Under the President’s Gaze: Sexuality and Morality at a Canadian University during the Second World War”, she discusses the changing idea of sexuality and morality. “The trend from single-sex socialization to co-ed activities, and from the surveillance of parlour courtship to a more anonymous culture of dating, led to the notion of sex for pleasurable consumption and marked the development of a new heterosexual culture”. This change in the sexuality concept also lead to the idea of morality and morals. It was noted that “sexual transgression with a lack of general moral soundness” was directly linked. With sexuality and morality, we have “character formation [which then leads to] individual personality and the pursuit of self-realization” and ultimately individual fulfillment in one’s life. These ideas of self-realization and one’s individual personality was not a very thought of concept in the early centuries, however, as the twentieth century came and progressed through the years, this concept become more accepted.
All of these readings contributed to the topic of “Public and Private Canada” but with more of a focus on gender, family, and sexuality. The readings show these aspects by using examples such as a Canadian census on parenthood and families, and the ideas of sexuality and morality. These readings not only help us to understand the topics we discussed in the lecture, but also contributes to the wider historiography of the topic “Public and Private Canada”.
 Bettina Bradbury, “Single Parenthood in the Past: Canadian Census Categories, 1891-1951 and the ‘Normal’ Family,” Historical Methods, 33, 4 (Fall, 2000): 211.
 Ibid., 213.
 Catherine Gidney, “Under the President’s Gaze: Sexuality and Morality at a Canadian University During the Second World War,” Canadian Historical Review, 82, 1 (March, 2001): 37.
 Ibid., 42.
 Sara Z. Burke, “Trending the Student Body: Youth, Health, and the Modern University by Catherine Gidney (Review),” The Canadian Historical Review, 96, 4 (2015): 613.
Bradbury, Bettina. “Single Parenthood in the Past: Canadian Census Categories, 1891-1951 and the ‘Normal’ Family.” Historical Methods, 33, 4 (Fall, 2000): 211-217.
Burke, Sara Z. “Trending the Student Body: Youth, Health, and the Modern University by Catherine Gidney (Review).” The Canadian Historical Review, 96, 4 (2015): 611-613.
Gidney, Catherine. “Under the President’s Gaze: Sexuality and Morality at a Canadian University During the Second World War.” Canadian Historical Review, 82, 1 (March, 2001): 36-54.